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Credit risk is the risk that a borrower will not be able to meet its financial obligations and therefore, does not repay the loan. This risk is present in any type of loan, whether it is to an individual, a company, or a government.

Assessing credit risk

There are several ways in which credit risk can be assessed. One of the most common methods is through credit assessments. This looks at various factors, such as the borrower’s income, ability to repay the loan, and past payment behaviour. Based on this, a credit rating is assigned to the borrower.

Importance of credit risk management

An important aspect of credit risk is managing it. There are numerous ways in which this can be done, such as diversifying the loan portfolio, setting limits on credit issuance, and establishing contractual agreements with borrowers on how credit risk will be managed.

How can you mitigate credit risk?

There are several ways to mitigate credit risk:

  • Conduct credit research: Conduct a thorough credit investigation before extending credit to customers. This will provide information about their payment history and financial situation.
  • Put clear payment terms on paper: Set clear payment terms so that customers know what is expected of them and the consequences of non-payment.
  • Monitor debtors closely: Monitor debtors closely and take timely action in case of problems. You can also outsource debtor management.
  • Limit the amount of credit: Limit the amount of credit to customers to an amount within your ability to bear.
  • Use factoring: Get invoices paid immediately and no longer run risk.
  • Use collection agencies: Consider using collection agencies with customers who have payment issues.
  • Avoid extending credit to high-risk customers: Refuse credit to customers with a poor payment history or uncertain financial situation.
  • Put safeguards in place: Set up safeguards, such as a surety bond, to reduce risk.
  • Exploring technological solutions: In the contemporary landscape, technological tools play a crucial role in mitigating credit risk. Advanced analytics and machine learning algorithms can provide real-time insights into a borrower’s financial health, enabling more accurate risk assessments.
  • Global economic trends and credit risk: Consideration of global economic trends is paramount. Changes in interest rates, geopolitical events, and economic downturns can significantly impact credit risk. Staying informed about these factors allows for proactive risk management.

By following these steps, you can mitigate credit risk and protect your business from financial losses. It is important to stress that no single method eliminates credit risk, but a combination of different methods can be used to minimise risk and keep the loan portfolio as safe as possible.


Credit risk is a critical factor to consider when issuing loans and managing the loan portfolio. By assessing and managing credit risk, borrowers can ensure that they have a high probability of repaying their loans. A good way to mitigate credit risk is to carry out efficient debtor management and use factoring.

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